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Kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo - ulendo wopanda kubwerera

dumbing pansi - njira yopanda kubwerera ndi zolemba. Zikumveka mokweza kuganiza pamene tikufunafuna mayankho a mafunso awa: "Nchifukwa chiyani timakhala osasamala?"

Zovuta za ubongo - chiyambi cha kudzikonda-kokha (i) kudzikonda

Tiyamba ndi kuyesa kochepa komwe kumafuna masekondi osachepera 30. Pali anthu atatu akuda ndi atatu oyera pa kanema. Gulu lirilonse liri ndi basketball yake yomwe imaphatikizidwa kwa munthu kuchokera ku timu yawo popanda kuwombera mudengu (yemwe sali). Ndi ntchito yanu kukhala mu masekondi makumi atatu zokha onetsetsani kuwonjezera gulu loyera, kunyalanyaza gulu lakuda. Tsopano yang'anani pamapepala.

 

Ndikulingalira kuti aliyense akuganiza momwe akuwonjezera. Koma kwa funso ngati mwakumana ndi chinthu chachilendo, theka lidzakuyankhani molakwika. Pali anthu omwe amakwiya pamene akufunsidwa zomwe adaziwona.

Panali "khungu laluntha" limene tinalenga powerengera Kuwonjezera ndi kunyalanyaza gulu lakuda. Zolengedwa za kuyesera Kristofer chabris ( Christopher Chabris) ndi Danijel Sajmons (Daniel Simons) mu bukhu la "Invisible Gorillas" zadabwitsa izi. Ntchito ya kuwerengera ndi malangizo osanyalanyaza gulu lakuda imayambitsa kugona kwa china chirichonse.

Inde, ngati titapeza yankho la "chifukwa" timatanthauza "momwe tingasinthire (kapena kukhala chimodzimodzi). Kwa tsopano, tili ndi yankho la funso lakuti: "Chimachitika ndi chiyani akhungu akatsogolera akhungu." Mofananamo, ambiri adagwirizana kuti ali wolungama. Ndiye n'chifukwa chiyani akuimba mlandu ena?

 

Basidumbing pansi ndi kusokonezeka

Ambiri amaganiza kuti ubongo wathu chozizwitsa cha Mulungu, okonzekera chilichonse, indefatigable, woonekeratu koma ife inayake iwo scrambled. Ndi malemba awa, malingaliro awa ali mbali ina. Ubongo uli ndi mphamvu yosamvetsetseka komanso kusintha kwake. Koma choyamba tiyenera kuyambitsa izo, moyenerera, ndi zolinga zabwino ndi zolinga. Pomwepo ndiye chozizwitsa chikuchitika.

Ubongo uli ndi ma kompyuta akuluakulu kumbali imodzi ndipo ukhoza kukhala woposa momwe timaganizira, koma ngati timakonda. Kodi mukudziwa kuti kupeza makalata ndi kuwerenga kwachititsa kuti kusintha kwa nyumba zathu kukhale chida chowerenga? Ubongo poyamba sunapangidwe kuti uzigwira ntchito. Ponena za (anti)dumbing pansi Titha kuchita zambiri. Ndi zoona ndipo mosiyana. Izo ziri pa ife.

Tikaona mwayi wa ubongo pa dzanja limodzi ndi zamkhutu zonse ndiponso kuwonongeratu kuti tinapereka madyerero mnzake mu mbiri pa ena, mudzaona kuti iwo akulondola ndi amene amanena kuti dziko umapulumuka chifukwa "zamkhutu wagwiro". Ena amanena kuti chifukwa chokhalabe osadziŵa komanso kunama timalekerera awo omwe amatsogolera ndikuti Ambuye amasamalira gulu laling'ono lake. Ngati sakanakhala nawo, Dziko lapansi likadakhalapo kwa nthawi yaitali.

 

Chochita

Ntchitoyi inatiwonetsa kuti nlingaliro lingathe kukhala lokha kapena mothandizidwa ndi ena kuti akhale omasuka kwambiri chonena iwe, ndibwino kuti ukhale pa nthawi yomweyo iwo ankagona chifukwa cha kupha kwawo. Tikufuna thandizo la akatswiri pokhapokha titangomaliza kumene. Zisanachitike, ziribe kanthu yemwe amadziwa bwino kuposa ife. Funso ndilo, ndipo tikanati tifulumize kunena chinachake kwa ife eni.

optical illusion
Malingaliro opusa, awiri autali ali ofanana

Ambiri amadziwa komanso amadziwa zizindikiro zowonongeka zokhazokha ndi ma fatamorgans, m'mawu achinyengo. Khungu laumtima silingadziwe,chifukwa ndi zophweka kwa iwo.

Kodi tingachite ndi kukumbukira kusankha, nthawi zambiri mwadala molakwika kuti ndi thandizo la "ngati" kuganiza, m'maganizo ndi contrivances anapanga okha fano limene ife tiri okondwa? Pamapeto pake, ndi chiyani ndi malingaliro onse opusawa omwe timagwiritsa ntchito mosamala komanso mosadziwa?

Yankho liripo. Tiyeni tikumbukire malemba za kuganiza. Ife tinati icho chinali chinachake chimene ubongo ukuchita, ndi zomwe ife timati tichite.

 

 Wosuta fodya - tiyeni tikumane(ndikuchitapo kanthu)

Nthawi zambiri tikaseka, koma kwenikweni timapeza kuti pali mitu yambiri. Nthawi zina ndizozizira kwambiri. Pano tipenda ophunzira atatuwo. Yoyamba ndi dongosolo lokhazikika lomwe silingatulutse. Yina ndiyo dongosolo lodzifunira. Wachitatu ndi amene amawona.

 

Daniel Kahneman woyambitsa "Kuganiza kudya ndipo m'mbuyo" ife akamufunsirire monga bwino maina dongosolo 1 ndi 2 dongosolo chifukwa, monga, kutenga malo zochepa m'maganizo mwathu ntchito ndi ife tikukhumba kuti apitirizebe nkhaniyi. Mwina izi ndi zoona kwa oganiza bwino. Zimakhala zosavuta kwa oyamba kumene kuzindikira kuti ndizowonongeka komanso zowonongeka, komanso kuwonjezera pa osowa kwambiri.

Sistemi 1 i 2

Machitidwe odziimira okha (osadziwika okha a 1 system) ali ndi udindo wopulumuka. Amasankha zochita mofulumira komanso ndi anzake. Ngati moyo suli woopsya kwa ife, umasiya dongosolo la 2 kupanga nthano yovomerezeka, yogwirizana. Nthawi zina monga momwe ntchito yotentha timatha "kutonthoza" izo, koma nthawi zambiri zimachitika. Kuphunzitsa pang'ono sikutayika.

momwe tingapangire nkhani ya zomwe tikuwona
Mayesero -: - mwamsanga-kugwirizana-kuganiza- (pa-momwe-ife-kukhala)

Pa chithunzi pamwambapa cha 1 System, yomwe poyamba (nthawi zambiri yokhayoyang'ana) imawona "chinachake". Awa ndiwo mayanjano osiyanasiyana omwe amayamba ndi: amandiopseza, sandiika pangozi. Mwachitsanzo: chithunzi chachikulu, digger odukaduka popanda aunzi ya ubongo, ndili ndi zambiri, ine ndikanafuna kuti maonekedwe anga monga chonchi, wokongola ngati iye analankhula, monga pamwamba (m'munsimu), kodi nkhumba tsopano mwamuna Apen, Ndine chidwi chimene inu ndi ntchito, izi Milojka wanga atakulungidwa ... (kumatanthauza kuti ndimadana), Ndikufuna kupeza wekha chimodzi mwa izi, ngati ndimalola mwana wanga kukhala ngati izi ...?

 

Izi ndizo chitsanzo cha kuchepetsa kusokonezeka kwa malingaliro athu. Ndi ulesi kuti timapereka chikhulupiliro cholimba pa chinachake chimene timakhulupirira kuti timachidziwa. Mwa njira iyi, "timadzipulumutsa tokha" chifukwa sitingathe kudzizindikira tokha kusadziwa ndi kuyamba ena, popanda kulingalira za gawo (kapena System 2). Njira yamphamvu kwambiri yopewa masomphenya a kusatsimikizika. Yochepa kwambiri: "Sindikuopsezedwa." Kwa ena tidzakhala osavuta.

(Kukhaokha) Kubvuta ndi kosavuta komanso "kokongola"

Izi "zosavuta" ndi ntchito ya machitidwe onse, ndiko kuti, ngati chowonetserachi chikuwonongeka. Nthaŵi zambiri, timaganizira chinthu china, kotero sitiganiza choncho, kotero sitimaphatikizapo ndondomeko ya dongosolo la 2. Bwanji ngati ubongo wathu wothandizira umadziwa zonse. Nthawi zambiri maganizowa amakhala ovuta kwambiri. Zoonadi, sitingavomereze izo.

Kulungamitsidwa kwa-dumbing pansi
Nzeru zamumtima
1Goleman D. (1997), Emotional Intelligence, Geopoetics, Belgrade, pp 19

Pa chithunzithunzi, tikuwona zomwe zimachitika tikamalingalira kuti tiri pangozi (m'malo momudziwa bwino). Buluu pomwe mukujambula ndi njoka (Ndiyenera kujambula izi molakwika). Deta imalowa m'maso, kuchokera pamenepo imatembenukira ku thalamus. Apa chizindikiro chikuphwanyika. Gawo lalikulu likupita ku makina owona kuti agwiritsidwe ntchito pomwe gawo laling'ono likupita ku amygdala (glands ziwiri, malo oyamba a mantha), kumene kugwiritsidwa ntchito kumaphatikizapo kapena kuchepetsa.

Ngati moyo wathu uli pangozi (pambuyo ziyenera mwamsanga System 1) magazi ife kumawonjezera, mlingo mtima komanso, pamene minofu lalikulu okonzekera kumenya "kapena ndege" kanthu. Ngati moyo suli pangozi, ndiye kuti: njoka ya chidole, nthabwala za munthu, njoka yosavulaza, yotsekedwa kapena yopangidwa. Zonse mwa izo, palibe chowopsya. Kotero ife tikubwerera ku "komwe ine ndaima."

 Yesetsani "Kuganiza"

Kanemani mu bukhu lomwe tamutchula ndi kuyesa kwina komwe kwachitidwa ndi antchito. Akuluakulu ogwira ntchito pa chipinda chodyera ogwira ntchito anali ndi makina ndi tiyi. Kwa zaka, khofi ndi tiyi zidalipidwa poyika ndalama mu "bokosi lachikhulupiliro". Pamwamba pamakhala mndandanda wamtengo wapatali ndi ndalama zomwe analangizidwa.

Ndiye, popanda chidziwitso ndi kulengeza pamwamba pa makina, chojambula ndi maluwa chimayikidwa pamwamba pa ndalama zoyenera. Pambuyo masiku asanu ndi awiri, chikhomocho chinasinthidwa, ndipo tsopano panali chithunzi chokhala ndi maso omwe munthu akugwiritsa ntchito pamwamba pa makina. (Ndikulingalira pang'ono, mukhoza kuwona izi kuchokera mu fanizo ili m'munsiyi.

Zithunzi
Anasonkhanitsa ndalama yothyola mkaka

Palibe amene adayankha pa chirichonse, koma ndalama za Lamlungu zinasiyanasiyana kwambiri. "Sunday Flower Day" inali yosauka kwambiri kuposa "Chithunzi cha Sunday Eye".

Musadandaule ndi kuganiza kuti dongosolo lanu la 2 ndi chinthu china ndipo nthawi zonse mumadziwa zifukwa zanu zopangira zisankho. Mwina ndibwino kudabwa chifukwa chake ma posters a opambana a chisankho akhala motalika, nthawi yaitali kutiyang'ana ife kuchokera kutalika ndi pambuyo pa chisankho. Kapena chifukwa chake "satuluka pa TV" (kapena kuchoka) nthawi zonse. Inde, nthawizonse "mwanjira ina" patsogolo.

dumbing pansi
Dumbing mu utumiki demokalase ndi bwino-yaikuru "anachita" -Citizens-Nis ndi chifukwa

Kuswa ndi "zotsatira"

Zotsatira? Eya, sikuti sikuti iwo okha sali okondwa nawo. Aliyense amangoona zake zokha, ntchito yovuta kwambiri. Zowononga zachipulotesitanti - bwanji ngati zitatithandiza. Chipulotesitanti ku Sweden. Kotero chiyani? Pamene iwo adakongola, iwo ankaganiza kuti anali anzeru ndipo iwo akanadutsa bwino. Kutsutsa zida. Kotero chiyani? Iwo ndi okonzeka ndipo nthawizonse amachoka chimene akufuna. Amadziyang'ana okha. Ndichifukwa chiyani ndingapezeke pangozi ngati sindingapeze chilichonse? Kugwiriridwa kwa ogwira ntchito ku Gosia? Kotero chiyani? Kodi amuna omwe anali ndi zida zankhondo sanajowine chiyani? Kuchepetsa pensions. Kotero chiyani? Iwo samakhudza iwo omwe ali ndi pensions yapansi kwambiri. Amene akuyenera kukwiya. Kodi sindinakhale wopusa kumapeto kwa zaka makumi asanu ndi anai, ndipo ndi kwaulere, pamene ambiri adatenga mamiliyoni?  

Pali zifukwa zambiri zomwe timasankha kuphunzitsidwa. Chifukwa cha chirichonse ndi mantha a dongosolo la 1. Ndicho chifukwa chake rijalitija ambiri ndi zomwe zilibe kanthu zomwe zimatipangitsa kuti tizilombo. Kulepheretsa kwakukulu kuchoka ku kuphatikiza kwa dongosolo la 2 lomwe likuopsezedwa ndi chigamulo cholamulira, ngakhale chosasinthika. Kuyambira pamenepo, ife monga anthu tinadwala. Izi zimatchedwa mliri wa m'maganizo.  

Kutsiliza

Anthu omwewo omwe anali ndi mphamvu yokamenyera ufulu "atavala" ku South Africa tsopano akudutsa chisamaliro cha lamulo la Tianan. Zopempha zokhudzana ndi malo ochezera a pa Intaneti zimathera mwakachetechete, zigawenga siziyankha, ndondomeko ya milandu imatha.

Poyang'ana zochitikazo, tingathe kunena kuti mliri wamagazi umachotsa magazi. Anthu ochepa chabe kwa zaka zambiri amatengeka ndipo anafunkha (zakuthupi ndi zauzimu) ndi anthu onyenga, osadziŵa zambiri. Nthawi zina ndi zochitika, nthawi zina mwa kusokoneza kapenacholakwika oweruza amatha kunena.

Primera dumbing pansi ndizosawerengeka, zomwezo sizingakhale kanthu kwa aliyense (pakuti tsopano). Akatswiri onyenga, Savamala, katemera ovomerezeka ndi katemera wosatsimikiziridwa amene kunyada kwatha (ndipo iwo anali okwera mtengo kwambiri pamsika), kupereka ana mauthenga a SMS pamene thanzi likusokoneza mabiliyoni a euro pachaka ...

Popeza tinapulumuka zambiri kuposa zomwe tanenazi tingathe kuyembekezera kukana dumbing pansi, mofanana ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timene timapanga penicillin komanso mapiri DDT. Ife tinali anthu omwe ziwanda zidapanga gulu la anthu, koma tikusankha kukhala anthu omwe amakopeka ndi zabwino chifukwa sitimakonda izi tsopano. Khungu lachinsinsi ndi lochiritsidwa, choncho ndi mliri wamaganizo.     

Malangizo kwa omwe amawerenga ndi zotsatirazi:

- Ndikhoza kupanga zithunzi ndi zithunzi, koma sindinatero. Chifukwa chiyani? Chifukwa cha zolemba zosadziwika, zithunzi kapena zithunzi, dongosolo lowerenga likuphatikizapo dongosolo la 2. Iyi ndiyo njira yomwe ndimayimilira malemba anga chifukwa choyamba ndi chapadera. Ndikufunika kutsimikizira.

-Naganizira za mutuwu ndi maluwa ena. Ndicho chifukwa chake ambiri adzasiya malo. Ambiri amabwerera kenako chifukwa dongosolo la 2 liri (kotero) linatsegulidwa.

Radosav Lazić

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